Friends with Advantages: The Evolved Psychology of exact exact Same- and Opposite-Sex Friendship3

Materials and techniques


Individuals were 63 male and 58 feminine pupils (mean age = 20.8 years, SD = 3.8 years) signed up for a psychology that is introductory at a big general public college within the Southwestern United States. A hundred fourteen participants reported being heterosexual, six reported being homosexual, plus one would not report orientation that is sexual. Because our hypotheses pertained up to a heterosexual model, just data from heterosexual individuals had been retained. Individuals finished the analysis for a safe host hosted by the Psychology Department at the college and received partial course credit because of their involvement.

Questionnaire and procedure

Real buddy selection. A questionnaire instructed participants to record people they know therefore the functions every one of these close buddies served when it comes to individuals inside their life. Underneath the directions had been parts for participants to record as much as eight buddies. Each part contained six blank text areas for individuals to go into the buddy’s functions, and a concern asking the intercourse of this buddy.

Budget allocation task. Six domains that are adaptively relevant constructed with an act nomination procedure (Buss and Craik, 1983). Six undergraduate research assistants blind to your hypotheses regarding the present research detailed as numerous faculties, characteristics, and abilities while they could that will have already been related to to be able to successfully re solve adaptive issues recurrently faced during human being evolutionary history. This process led to a total of 62 traits. The research assistants then categorized these faculties based on the broader domain names of adaptive dilemmas the traits assisted re re re solve. The investigation assistants reached opinion on six distinct groups into that your 62 characteristics dropped: Family Care, bodily Prowess, bodily Attractiveness, Personality, Economic site reputation (ERS), and Social Intelligence. Someone full of Family Care is adept at re re solving dilemmas linked to son or daughter rearing and meals gathering; an individual high in Physical Prowess is a great fighter, is able to provide real security, and has strong searching abilities; an individual full of Physical Attractiveness possesses traits connected with being appealing to people in the contrary intercourse; someone saturated in Personality is altruistic, acceptable, and cooperative; an individual saturated in ERS possesses resources, along with the cap ability and social connections to obtain future resources; and someone full of Social Intelligence is skilled with people and in a position to get access to essential social information.

The 62 characteristics, organized by domain, had been presented to individuals before the budget was begun by them allocation task (see Appendix A). Individuals were given three sequentially increasing spending plans of “friend dollars” ($15, $25, and $35). The guidelines explained that all buck allotted to a certain domain for a pal ended up being connected with a decile (10 percentile) rise in that domain for that buddy in accordance with the friend’s same-sex peers. As an example, a participant that is male allocated $7 to an OSF’s real Attractiveness would get a lady buddy who was simply more appealing than 70per cent of her same-sex peers, and one more buck used on her real Attractiveness would increase her standing in this domain by one more decile, making her more desirable than 80per cent of her peers. Individuals were served with a text that is blank for every single domain and typed the desired wide range of buddy bucks for every domain into these industries. Spending within one budget ended up being separate from, and would not carry up to, spending on other spending plans.


Analysis of this friend that is actual information centered on the functions of individuals’ buddies. Two researchers blind towards the intercourse associated with the participant and buddy categorized the functions in accordance with wider domain names of adaptive issues solved ( ag e.g., the functions of “networking” and “influence” were categorized as of the “Status Striving” domain; see Appendix B when it comes to complete list). When there was clearly disagreement between your scientists in regards to the categorization associated with the functions, these differences were discussed by the researchers and reached opinion for several categorizations. Chi-square analyses had been carried out from the regularity matters for every domain, arranged by participant friendship and sex kind (in other words., same-sex vs. Opposite-sex relationship).

2 ? 3 ANOVAs with trend analyses had been carried out in the budget allocation information for same- and friends that are opposite-sex. Participant intercourse had been a between-subject element, and spending plan degree ($15, $25, $35) ended up being a factor that is within-subject. Outcomes at each and every spending plan degree are reported in brackets.

Outcomes offered help for 7 regarding the 10 hypothesized developed design options that come with males’s and ladies’ SSF and OSF choices.


Buddy functions. Buddy function information didn’t help Prediction 1, that people would appreciate traits in SSFs indicative to be a dependable reciprocator, or Prediction 6, that ladies, significantly more than males, would desire OSFs with traits connected with reliably sharing resources, such as for example generosity, agreeableness, and reliability.